§ 2. Tony Cunningham (Workington)
If he will make a statement on the results of his recent visit to Afghanistan. 
§ The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr. Jack Straw)
I visited Afghanistan from 30 June to 1 July. In Kabul, I met President Karzai, Foreign Minister Dr. Abdullah and Interior Minister Jalali, and saw a British Army team training NCOs of the Afghan national army. On a visit to Kandahar with Interior Minister Jalali, I spoke to a 200-strong meeting of tribal leaders and women's representatives, visited a pioneering women's health centre, and had meetings with the governor and at the police academy.
Significant progress has been made in implementing the Bonn agreement. Security remains a key issue, as do the related issues of drugs and terrorism. Eight provincial reconstruction teams are being established, including a British-led one in Mazar-e-Sharif. For all the challenges ahead, Afghanistan is an infinitely better and safer place than when the Taliban and al-Qaeda were in control.
§ Tony Cunningham
I thank the Secretary of State for that reply. As chair of the all-party group on Afghanistan, I have met a great many Afghans—[Interruption]. I hope that Opposition Members will listen. All the Afghans I have met are appreciative of Britain's role in Afghanistan and are quite optimistic for the future, but my right hon. Friend is right: the key element, which they always stress to me, is security. What more can be done to deal seriously with the threat of warlords and militias?
§ Mr. Straw
Two related things have to be done. First, the remnants of al-Qaeda and the Taliban have, bluntly, to be eliminated; they continue to pose a serious threat, especially in the south of the country, as I discussed in Kandahar with all the tribal leaders, the Afghan Administration and the US generals and the colonel in command of the forces fighting al-Qaeda.
Alongside that, we have to build up the Afghan national army and the Afghan national police. The British Government, along with our international partners, are investing a huge amount of money and, even more important, human resources to achieve that.
§ Mr. Elfyn Llwyd (Meirionnydd Nant Conwy)
Following the conflict in Afghanistan, the United States Administration and the Government promised certain amounts of money towards the rebuilding of the infrastructure of that country. What was the global figure and how much has been paid?
§ Mr. Straw
At the Tokyo conference in January last year, the United Kingdom pledged £200 million over five years, plus 19 per cent. of the European Union pledge of US $1 billion. We have spent £170 million since September 2001 and we shall continue to spend 882 hundreds of millions of pounds in the future. Most of the money that was pledged at the January 2002 conference has been paid, although some has not. The financing requirements spelt out by the Transitional Administration are substantial. They have called for a further US $15 billion of assistance over the next 10 years and that is currently being discussed with international partners.
§ David Cairns (Greenock and Inverclyde)
Given that 90 per cent. of the heroin on Britain's streets and three-quarters of the world's opium originate in Afghanistan, what practical and financial help and assistance can the UK Government give to the Afghan Administration to destroy this year's crop, which is currently being harvested and is predicted to be a bumper one, to ensure that that evil trade is ended once and for all?
§ Mr. Straw
On the size of this year's crop, we shall await the results of the UN-US study. For the first time, the US and the UN agencies are using a combined methodology so that we do not end up with the huge variations in crop production that have occurred in previous years. We think that the data will be at a higher and better level.
The Afghan Administration is devoting substantial resources to help to eliminate the crop where they can, but that is tied directly to the issue of security and terrorism. It will be a long haul, involving not only security and interdiction but the building up of alternative livelihoods for poor farmers in Afghanistan, before the too many communities in the country that depend on opium production can be moved away from that reliance.
What are we doing? Alongside the more general training that we are providing for the Afghan national army and the Afghan police, one of the things that I saw when I was in Kandahar was a training programme, with our assistance, for a core group of good, expert police officers in the Afghan national police, so that they could deal better with drugs and drug-related crime.
§ Patrick Mercer (Newark)
The Foreign Secretary will be aware that, in the last week of the Iraq war, there were more combat deaths in Afghanistan than in Iraq, as a result of which there has already been a considerable British reinforcement of regular troops and armoured vehicles. As a result of his visit, can the Foreign Secretary say whether he will recommend that further reinforcements go to Afghanistan?
§ Mr. Straw
We have 300 troops in the international stabilisation and assistance force and a number of excellent troops, whom I saw, involved in other aspects of security. We are moving 60 to 70 troops, plus some Foreign and Commonwealth Office and Department for International Development officials, into the provincial reconstruction team in Mazar-e-Sharif. I have made no recommendation to my right hon. Friend the Secretary of State for Defence to increase those numbers, but he and our ambassador on the ground, in consultation with 883 the commanders of the international security assistance force and our US colleagues, keep the number of troops, including our contribution, under very careful review.
§ Joan Ruddock (Lewisham, Deptford)
I congratulate my right hon. Friend on the UK role in Afghanistan, but does he not think that it is time that the United States stopped its collaboration with the warlords and made it very clear that it supports the Karzai Government? Given that a third of Afghanistan is out of bounds to UN personnel without protection and that the draft constitution has not yet been published, is it possible that the constitutional Loya Jirga can go ahead in October?
§ Mr. Straw
I reject entirely the suggestion that the US approach is any different from ours and that it is collaborating with the warlords. It is not, and I am very clear, not least from discussions with the US commanders on the ground, that they are providing more assistance overall than any other single nation in eliminating the grip of the warlords and strengthening the power and authority of the Afghan Administration and President Karzai. Among other things, they directly provide the bodyguards for President Karzai.
As for the Loya Jirga, I attended what amounted to a mini Loya Jirga in Kandahar, and I was impressed by the fact that a representative from the Constitutional Commission was also in attendance. An iterative, consultative process is taking place with representatives around the country. I stressed to all the Afghan representatives whom I met that it is extremely important for them that they make progress on the time lines set out by the Bonn agreement.