HC Deb 28 April 2004 vol 420 c1066W
Joan Ruddock

To ask the Secretary of State for Work and Pensions what proportion of women in each ethnic group are living in poverty, defined as below 60 per cent. of median income(a) before and (b) after housing costs. [166923]

Mr. Pond

[holding answer 22 April 2004]The information is in the following tables.

Ethnic Group Percentage of adult women living below 60 per cent. of contemporary median income before housing costs
White 16
Asian or Asian British 34
Of which:
Indian 21
Pakistani/Bangladeshi 55
Black or Black British 26
Chinese, Mixed or Other 18
All Women 17

Ethnic Group
Percentage of adult women living below 60 per cent. of contemporary median income after housing costs
White 20
Asian or Asian British 40
Of which:
Indian 23
Pakistani/Bangladeshi 64
Black or Black British 38
Chinese, Mixed or Other 28
All Women 21
1. All figures are estimates and are taken from the Households Below Average Income (HBAI) series.
2. The data given are for 2002–03, and are taken from the Family Resources Survey.
3. Estimates are for Great Britain, and relate to both working-age and pensioner females.
4. The estimates are based on sample counts, which have been adjusted for non-response using multipurpose grossing factors that control for tenure, Council Tax band and a number of other variables. Estimates are subject to both sampling error, and to remaining variability in non-response, which is not corrected by the grossing regime.
5. The income measure used is weekly net (disposable) equivalised household income (that is to say income that is adjusted to reflect the composition of the household). Figures include the self-employed.
6. Caution should be taken when interpreting results for gender groups using HBAI data. HBAI attempts to measure living standards as determined by household income; consequently both partners in a couple will appear at the same position in the income distribution.
7. Ethnic categories published in HBAI 2002–03 are more detailed; results in this answer have been aggregated because of the additional breakdown for gender.
8. Figures for the 'Chinese, Mixed or Other' group are based on a smaller sample and should only be used as a guide.