§ Mr. Frank Field
To ask the Chancellor of the Exchequer what the research was, referred to in the green paper Simplicity, security and choice: Working and saving for retirement, that found that the 401k schemes in the USA have been successful in raising pension saving amongst the low paid.
§ Ruth Kelly
There is an ongoing body of research on 401k pension schemes in the US. Studies that have looked at the effect of 401 kschemes on the low paid, for example, Engen, E and Gale, W (2000J, The Effects of 401(k) Plans on Household Wealth: Differences Across Earnings Groups, NBER Working Paper 8032, (http:// papers.nber.org/papers/w8032.pdf) suggest that 401 ks have been successful in raising pension saving among lower earners.