§ Mr. Hepburn
To ask the Secretary of State for Social Security what the child poverty levels in the Jarrow constituency were in(a) 1997 and (b) 2001. 
§ Mr. Bayley
Poverty and social exclusion are complex multi-dimensional issues, affecting many aspects of children's lives—their families' income, health, housing, the quality of their environment and opportunities to learn. There is no single measure that can capture the complex problems that need to be overcome.
However, a number of these aspects have seen significant improvement in Jarrow since 1997. For example, the proportion of 11-year-olds achieving level four or above at Key Stage 2 has risen in both english and mathematics from around 60 per cent. to over 70 per cent. in 2000. Over the same period the number of children in families in receipt of out of work benefits has fallen from 4,900 to 4,500.