§ Mr. Amess
To ask the Secretary of State for the Environment, Transport and the Regions (1) what estimate he has made of the proportion of the UK consumption of hydrofluorocarbons used as refrigerants that are used(a) to replenish existing systems and (b) as original charges in refrigeration systems; 
(2) what estimates he has made of the leakage rates of hydrofluorocarbons refrigerants. 
§ Mr. Meacher
The report prepared for DETR and the DTI by EnvirosMarch, "UK Emissions of HFCs, PFCs and SF6 and Potential Emission Reduction Options", was published in January 1999 and provide estimates of UK emissions of hydrofluorocarbons from refrigeration and air conditioning. These estimates are based in part on assumptions about charges and leakage rates of hydrofluorocarbons from refrigeration systems in nine different refrigeration and air conditioning sectors.
Leakage rates were subsequently updated for the hydrofluorocarbon emissions estimates published in the draft Climate Change Programme, March 2000. The table is based on Table A3, page A.4 of the EnvirosMarch report. It provides emissions and consumption parameters for refrigeration and air conditioning equipment used to estimate total emissions in 1995 and 2010. Copies of the report have been placed in the Library. However the proportion of hydrofluorocarbons used to (a) replenish existing systems and (b) as original charges is not explicitly provided in the report and could not be collated without incurring disproportionate cost.
Estimated leakage rates of hydrocarbon refrigeration are currently being reviewed in the light of latest information and I plan to publish updated hydrofluorocarbon emissions estimates alongside the final Climate Change Programme document this autumn.923W
Assumed refrigeration and air conditioning emission and consumption parameters used in the hydrofluorocarbon emission estimates published in the draft Climate Change Programme, March 2000 Product manufacturing (%) Product life (%) Product disposal (%) Typical plant life (years) Market sub-segment 1995 2010 1995 12010 1995 2010 (years) Domestic refrigeration 1 1 1 1 to 2 50 20 13 Other small hermetic 1 1 1 1 to 2 50 20 9 Small commercial 3 2 20 8 to 15 10 5 13 Supermarket refrigeration 3 2 25 8 to 15 10 5 13 Industrial refrigeration 3 2 20 4 to 12 10 5 25 Air conditioning, distributed 3 2 20 8 to 15 10 5 12 Air conditioning, chillers 1 1 10 3 to 5 5 3 25 Transport refrigeration 1 1 15 8 to 10 15 5 8 Mobile air conditioning 1 1 15 6 to 10 50 25 12 1 Range of leakage rates used for updated emissions projections published in the draft Climate Change Programme, March 2000
1. Product Manufacturing factor, percentage emission of fluid used to manufacture new equipment
2. Product Life factor, percentage of refrigerant bank emitted annually
3. Product Disposal factor, percentage emission of fluid in old plant being decommissioned
§ Mr. Meacher
The Government's policy for reducing emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) is set out in the draft climate change programme. We recognise that HFCs are necessary replacements for ozone-depleting substances in some applications. However, we are concerned that emissions from these sources are forecast to grow strongly in the near future as ozone-depleting substances are phased out. This trend is unsustainable in the longer-term and action needs to be taken to limit the projected growth in emissions. We are sending a clear signal to industry and users to look closely at all alternatives and to select those that are more environmentally acceptable where they do exist. Safety, technical feasibility and cost effectiveness should be taken into account before investment decisions are taken.
We are exploring with industry how the voluntary agreements on HFCs might be strengthened to reduce the projected growth in emissions. Emissions from industrial processes have already been substantially reduced and will continue to be regulated under the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control regime.