§ Mr. Nicholls
To ask the Secretary of State for Transport what estimates he has made of the cost of each of the accidents in the last two years where errant vehicles have left, via the near-side verge, roads, motorways and dual carriageways on which there is(a) a traffic flow of greater than 10,000 vehicles per day and (b) an accident incidence rate of more than 1.5 times the average for that class of road. 
§ Mr. Norris
The valuation attributed to the total number of road accidents, using the standard safety valuation method, in 1993 and 1994 in which a vehicle left the carriageway on the near-side is (i) motorways £227 million; (ii) dual carriageways £419 million; (iii) other roads £241 million.
It is not possible to provide these figures for roads with a traffic flow of greater than 10,000 vehicles per day, or for roads with a higher than average accident rate.
§ Mr. Nicholls
To ask the Secretary of State for Transport if he will commission the Transport Research Laboratory to carry out a full-scale assessment of the effectiveness of crash cushions. 
§ Mr. Watts
No. A study into the situations where there may be a need to deploy crash cushions on the highway network has already been carried out. Generally, their widespread use is not cost effective because of the unpredictability and infrequent occurrence of the type of accidents they prevent.
The Highways Agency has developed an effective prototype crash cushion, and other proprietary systems exist. They can be installed at particular sites on trunk roads if, in the light of the specific circumstances, they provide an appropriate solution.