§ Mr. Kirkwood
To ask the Secretary of State for Education and Science what steps he is taking to promote international co-operation in science.
§ Mr. Alan Howarth
A main objective for DES expenditure research is to increase international collaboration in science where this gives good value for money—for instance, where necessary concentration cannot be achieved at the national level—and having particular regard to possibilities for co-operation within the EC. To this end, the Department pays grant in aid annually to the five research councils, the Royal Society and the Fellowship of Engineering. In addition, resources are made available to the universities and polytechnics through the Universities Funding Council. It is for the scientific judgment of bodies in receipt of grant-in-aid and those they support, in discussion where appropriate with the Advisory Board for the Research Councils and the Department, to determine the particular scientific areas in which international co-operation should be promoted.