§ Sir H. CROFT
asked the President of the Board of Trade what it the increase of total exports and exports of manufactures per head of population from Great Britain and the Irish Free State combined, France, Germany, and the United States of America, respectively, between the years 1880 and 1928?
§ Mr. W. GRAHAM
The following statement shows, for the countries specified in the question, the values per head of the population of (a) the exports of domestic produce and manufactures, and (b) the exports of such articles which were classed as wholly or partly manufactured:
described in the trade returns of the respective countries as follows:
United Kingdom: "Articles wholly or mainly manufactured."
France: "Objets fabriqués."
Germany: "Fabrikate"—old classification; and "Fertige Warren"—later classification.1507W
United States: "Manufactures ready for consumption" and "fmanufactures for further use in manufacturing."
Manufactured foodstuffs are excluded throughout.
2. The values have been converted into sterling at the approximate par rates of exchange, except that the figures for 1928 relating to France have been converted at the average rate quoted in that year.
3. The figures for the United Kingdom for the year 1880 do not include the value of new ships and boats exported, particulars of which were not recorded in that year. The value of new ships and boats exported in 1928 from the United Kingdom and from the Irish Free State to places outside the British Isles was £15,618,000. Excluding this amount, the values per head of the population were £13 18s. 1d. for total exports and £11 3s. 3d. for manufactured exports. Except in respect of this item, the figures cover throughout the same classes of manufactured goods. As the trade between Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Irish Free State is now included in the external trade of each of these countries, the necessary adjustments have been made to exclude the trade between them and so make the figures for 1928 comparable with those for 1880.
4. In the case of Germany, the figures for 1880 exclude, while those for 1928 include, the value of ships exported and also the value of the "Improvement Trade" for Home Account. The figures for 1928 represent a classification of goods differing in certain respects from that covered in 1880. The value of deliveries in kind on account of Reparations have been included in 1928. If Reparations in kind are excluded the values per head of the population in 1928 would be £8 10s. 2d. for total exports and £6 11s. 5d. for manufactured exports.
5. In the cases of France and of Germany the territories covered by the statistics for 1928 differ from those to which the figures for 1880 relate.